H G Wells биография

H.G. Wells

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H. G. Wells

The English author, Herbert George Wells, also commonly referred to as the father of science fiction. In addition to writing a lot of science fiction works, Wells also produced other numerous literary works under many other genres including history, social commentary, politics and contemporary novels and text books.

H.G. Wells was born in Bromley, Kent County, England on September 21, 1866 to Sarah Neil who worked as a maid to the upper class and Joseph Wells, a professional cricket player and a shopkeeper. The family suffered poverty and Wells’ parents did not lead a happy married life. They eventually separated but neither of them married again. Wells developed an interest in reading beginning in his childhood. He would devote a lot of his time to reading everything that came his way. Wells studied at Thomas Morley’s Academy but was forced to drop out not being able to afford an education when his father broke a leg and was unable to play cricket and pay for Herbert’s school. Wells now fourteen began working as an apprentice to a draper where he gained experience and inspirations later reflected in his works Kipps (1905), a story about an orphan, Artie Kipps who makes his way to the upper class after gaining a large inheritance and education. His experience at the drapers shop was also reflected in The Wheels of Chance: A Bicycling Idyll (1896).

In 1883, Wells won a scholarship to the Normal School of Science in London where he discovered his interest in science. Under the expert teachings of Thomas Henry Huxley, Wells studied Biology and Darwinism. However, once again Wells was unable to complete the course of his studies. Unable to meet the degree requirements, Wells lost the scholarship. Facing an extreme financial crisis, he began living with his aunt and uncle at Fitzroy Road in London. During this time, Wells taught at his uncle’s school and also studied there part-time. In 1891, he married his cousin, Isabel Mary who also lived with the aunt and uncle. The marriage dissolved four years later when Wells left Mary for one of his students, Amy Catherine Robbins. The two got married in 1895 and had two sons. In spite of being married to Amy, Wells kept relations with other women who also became inspirations for some of his characters. Two of these women, Amber Reeves and Rebecca West gave birth to Wells’ children.

Although Wells had been writing for a long time, he published several of his stories in 1895. Some of his early published stories include Select Conversations with an Uncle was his first, followed by The Time Machine (1895), The Wonderful Visit (1895), and The Stolen Bacillus and Other Incidents (1895). His collection of essays and stories, Certain Personal Matters (1896) was followed by The Invisible Man (1897). In 1899, Wells published When the Sleeper Wakes followed by Love and Mr. Lewisham (1900) and The First Men in the Moon (1901). Wells’ first bestseller, Anticipations (1901) was about what the world would be like in the year 2000. A Modern Utopia was published in 1905.

H.G. Wells

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At age 18, H.G. Wells won a scholarship to study biology at the Normal School of Science in London, where he studied under T.H. Huxley. He graduated from London University in 1888 and became a science teacher. His study of biology spurred him to hope that human society might evolve into higher forms.

H.G. Wells was a versatile author. The Time Machine and The War of the Worlds, his early publications, were science fiction novels that remain classics today. The War of the Worlds gave popular mythology to the image of the Martian. He went on to write comic novels of lower middle-class life and popular educational books.

H.G. Wells was an optimist of a type characteristic of his generation, which was breaking free from Victorian norms. He believed in the doctrine of social progress and championed sexual freedom. After Word War I, however, Wells became more pessimistic about human progress, as reflected in the bitter tone of his later books.

H.G. Wells, in full Herbert George Wells, (born September 21, 1866, Bromley, Kent, England—died August 13, 1946, London), English novelist, journalist, sociologist, and historian best known for such science fiction novels as The Time Machine and The War of the Worlds and such comic novels as Tono-Bungay and The History of Mr. Polly.

Early life

Wells was the son of domestic servants turned small shopkeepers. He grew up under the continual threat of poverty, and at age 14, after a very inadequate education supplemented by his inexhaustible love of reading, he was apprenticed to a draper in Windsor. His employer soon dismissed him; and he became assistant to a chemist, then to another draper, and finally, in 1883, an usher at Midhurst Grammar School. At 18 he won a scholarship to study biology at the Normal School (later the Royal College) of Science, in South Kensington, London, where T.H. Huxley was one of his teachers. He graduated from London University in 1888, becoming a science teacher and undergoing a period of ill health and financial worries, the latter aggravated by his marriage, in 1891, to his cousin, Isabel Mary Wells. The marriage was not a success, and in 1894 Wells ran off with Amy Catherine Robbins (died 1927), a former pupil, who in 1895 became his second wife.

Early writings

Wells’s first published book was a Textbook of Biology (1893). With his first novel, The Time Machine (1895), which was immediately successful, he began a series of science fiction novels that revealed him as a writer of marked originality and an immense fecundity of ideas: The Wonderful Visit (1895), The Island of Doctor Moreau (1896), The Invisible Man (1897), The War of the Worlds (1898), The First Men in the Moon (1901), and The Food of the Gods (1904). He also wrote many short stories, which were collected in The Stolen Bacillus (1895), The Plattner Story (1897), and Tales of Space and Time (1899). For a time he acquired a reputation as a prophet of the future, and indeed, in The War in the Air (1908), he foresaw certain developments in the military use of aircraft. But his imagination flourished at its best not in the manner of the comparatively mechanical anticipations of Jules Verne but in the astronomical fantasies of The First Men in the Moon and The War of the Worlds, from the latter of which the image of the Martian has passed into popular mythology.

Behind his inventiveness lay a passionate concern for man and society, which increasingly broke into the fantasy of his science fiction, often diverting it into satire and sometimes, as in The Food of the Gods, destroying its credibility. Eventually, Wells decided to abandon science fiction for comic novels of lower middle-class life, most notably in Love and Mr. Lewisham (1900), Kipps: The Story of a Simple Soul (1905), and The History of Mr. Polly (1910). In these novels, and in Tono-Bungay (1909), he drew on memories of his own earlier life, and, through the thoughts of inarticulate yet often ambitious heroes, revealed the hopes and frustrations of clerks, shop assistants, and underpaid teachers, who had rarely before been treated in fiction with such sympathetic understanding. In these novels, too, he made his liveliest, most persuasive comment on the problems of Western society that were soon to become his main preoccupation. The sombre vision of a dying world in The Time Machine shows that, in his long-term view of humanity’s prospects, Wells felt much of the pessimism prevalent in the 1890s. In his short-term view, however, his study of biology led him to hope that human society would evolve into higher forms, and with Anticipations (1901), Mankind in the Making (1903), and A Modern Utopia (1905), he took his place in the British public’s mind as a leading preacher of the doctrine of social progress. About this time, too, he became an active socialist, and in 1903 joined the Fabian Society, though he soon began to criticize its methods. The bitter quarrel he precipitated by his unsuccessful attempt to wrest control of the Fabian Society from George Bernard Shaw and Sidney and Beatrice Webb in 1906–07 is retold in his novel The New Machiavelli (1911), in which the Webbs are parodied as the Baileys.

Middle and late works

After about 1906 the pamphleteer and the novelist were in conflict in Wells, and only The History of Mr. Polly and the lighthearted Bealby (1915) can be considered primarily as fiction. His later novels are mainly discussions of social or political themes that show little concern for the novel as a literary form. Wells himself affected not to care about the literary merit of his work, and he rejected the tutelage of the American novelist Henry James, saying, “I would rather be called a journalist than an artist.” Indeed, his novel Boon (1915) included a spiteful parody of James. His next novel, Mr. Britling Sees It Through (1916), though touched by the prejudice and shortsightedness of wartime, gives a brilliant picture of the English people in World War I.

World War I shook Wells’s faith in even short-term human progress, and in subsequent works he modified his conception of social evolution, putting forward the view that man could only progress if he would adapt himself to changing circumstances through knowledge and education. To help bring about this process of adaptation Wells began an ambitious work of popular education, of which the main products were The Outline of History (1920; revised 1931), The Science of Life (1931), cowritten with Julian Huxley and G.P. Wells (his elder son by his second wife), and The Work, Wealth, and Happiness of Mankind (1932). At the same time he continued to publish works of fiction, in which his gifts of narrative and dialogue give way almost entirely to polemics. His sense of humour reappears, however, in the reminiscences of his Experiment in Autobiography (1934).

In 1933 Wells published a novelized version of a film script, The Shape of Things to Come. (Produced by Alexander Korda, the film Things to Come [1936] remains, on account of its special effects, one of the outstanding British films of the 20th century.) Wells’s version reverts to the utopianism of some earlier books, but as a whole his outlook grew steadily less optimistic, and some of his later novels contain much that is bitterly satiric. Fear of a tragic wrong turning in the development of the human race, to which he had early given imaginative expression in the grotesque animal mutations of The Island of Doctor Moreau, dominates the short novels and fables he wrote in the later 1930s. Wells was now ill and aging. With the outbreak of World War II, he lost all confidence in the future, and in Mind at the End of Its Tether (1945) he depicts a bleak vision of a world in which nature has rejected, and is destroying, humankind.