Биография Джонатана Свифта
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«Биография Джонатана Свифта»
Джонатан Свифт (1667— 1745) is a well-known English author of «gulliver’s Travels» (1726), which is a masterpiece of comic literature. Swift is called a great satirist because of his ability to ridicule customs, ideas, and actions he considered silly or harmful. Swift was deeply concerned about the welfare and behaviour of the people of his time, especially the welfare of the Irish and the behaviour of the English toward Ireland.
Swift was born in Dublin on November 30, 1667. His parents were English. When Swift graduated from Trinity College in Dublin he moved to England in 1688. From 1689 he was a secretary of the distinguished statesman Sir William Temple.
Храм died in 1699, and in 1700 Swift became pastor of a small parish in Laracor, Ireland. He visited England, conducting church business and winning influential friends at the hignest levels of government. His skill as a writer became widely known.
In 1710, Swift became supporter of the new Tory government of Great Britain. He wrote many articles and pamphlets to defend the policies of Tory. In 1714 George I became king and the Whig Party won control of the government. These changes ended the political power of Swift and his friends in England.
Swift spent the rest of his life — more than 30 years — as dean of St patrick’s. It was as that dean Swift wrote «gulliver’s Travels» and the satiric pamphlets that increased his fame.
«Gulliver’s Travels» is often described as a book that children read with delight, but which adults find serious and disturbing. However, even young readers usually recognize that swift’s world sometimes resembles their own world.
«Gulliver’s Travels» describes four voyages that Lemuel Gulliver, who was trained as a ship’s doctor makes to strange lands. Gulliver first visits the Lilliputians — tiny people whose bodies and surroundings are only 1/12 the size of normal people and things. The Lilliputians treat Gulliver well at first. Gulliver helps them, but after a time they turn against him and he is happy to escape their land.
Gulliver’s second voyage takes him to the country of Brobdingnag, where the people are 12 times larger than Gulliver and greatly amused by his puny size.
Gulliver’s third voyage takes him to several strange kingdoms. The conduct of the odd people of these countries represents the kinds of foolishness Swift saw in his world.
In his last voyage, Gulliver discovers a land ruled by wise and gentle horses called Houyhnhnms. Savage, stupid animals called Yahoos also live there. The Yahoos look like human beings. Gulliver wishes to stay in the agreeable company of the Houyhnhnms, but they force him to leave.
Some people believe that the ugliness and stupidity of swift’s book reflect his view of the world. Other people argue that Swift was a devoted and courageous Christian who could not have denied the existence of goodness and hope.
1. Why is Swift called a great satirist?
2. When and where was Swift born?
3. What do you know about swift’s political career?
4. Is the book «gulliver’s Travels» for adults or for children?
5. How many voyages and to what countries did Swift describe in «gulliver’s Travels»?
delight — удовольствие, восхищение
disturbing — беспокойный, волнующий
Джонатан Свифт (1667-1745 гг.) — широко известный английский автор «Путешествий Гулливера» (1726 г.), что является шедевром комической литературы. Свифта называют великим сатириком благодаря его способности высмеивать обычаи, идеи и действия, которые он считал глупыми и оскорбительными. Свифт хорошо знал состояние и поведение людей своего времени, особенно благосостояние ирландцев и отношение англичан к ирландцам.
Свифт родился в Дублине 30 ноября 1667 г. Его родители были англичанами. Когда Свифт окончил Тринити колледж в Дублине, он в 1688 г. переехал в Англию. С 1689 г. он был секретарем выдающегося государственного деятеля сэра Уильяма Темпла.
Темпл умер в 1699 г., а в 1700 г. Свифт стал пастором в маленьком приходе в Ларакор в Ирландии. Он приезжал в Англию в церковных делах и завоевывал влиятельных друзей в высших кругах правительства. Его способности писателя стали очень популярными.
В 1710 г. Свифт стал влиятельным защитником нового правительства тори в Британии. Он написал много статей и памфлетов, защищая политику тори. В 1714 г. Георг И стал королем, и партия вигов взяла под контроль правительство. Эти изменения повлекли окончания политического влияния Свифта и его друзей в Англии.
Остаток своей жизни — больше 30 лет — Свифт провел настоятелем церкви святого Патрика. В это время он написал «Путешествия Гулливера» и сатирические памфлеты, усилили его славу.
«Путешествия Гулливера» часто описывают как книгу, которую дети читают с удовольствием, а взрослые серьезно и вдумчиво. Однако даже молодые читатели узнают, что мир Свифта часто отражает и наш собственный мир.
«Путешествия Гулливера» описывают четыре путешествия, которые совершил Лемюэль Гулливер, корабельный врач, в другие страны. Сначала Гулливер посетил страну лилипутов, маленьких людей, тела и окружения которых — лишь 1/12 от размера нормальных людей и вещей. Лилипуты хорошо относились к Гулливера, но через некоторое время они отвернулись от него, и Гулливер был счастлив оставить их землю.
Вторая поездка была в страну Бробдінгне, где люди были в 12 раз больше Гулливера, и они были сильно удивлены его маленьким размером.
Третья поездка была в несколько странных королевств. Поведение странных людей этих стран представляет ту глупость, которую Свифт видел в своем мире.
В своем последнем путешествии Гулливер нашел землю, которой управляли мудрые и благородные лошади гуїгнгми. Дикие и глупые животные яху тоже жили там. Яху были похожи на людей. Гулливер хотел остаться в приятном обществе гуїгнгмів, но они заставили его уехать.
Некоторые думают, что уродство и глупость книги Свифта отражают его видение мира. Другие считают, что Свифт был преданным и смелым христианином, который не мог отрицать существование добра и надежды.
Jonathan Swift Biography
Born In: Dublin, Ireland
Jonathan Swift , one of the foremost prose satirist in the English language, was also a reputed political pamphleteer, essayist, poet and cleric. Born in Ireland, he lost his father early on in life and was mostly brought up by his uncle. However, with the advent of the Glorious Revolution in Ireland, he was forced to move to England, where he secured employment under Sir William Temple. Here he got a taste of high living and power play. As a young man he often travelled back and forth between Ireland and England. Later, he entered the Church of Ireland, which at that time was a poor cousin of the Church of England. To secure the rights of his church, he began to write pamphlets and finally entered the political arena. However, his political ambition was not long lived and he returned to England for a short period. Soon he was back to Ireland where he became the Dean of St. Patrick Cathedral, a position he held until his death. As a writer, most of his works were written under pseudonyms. Today, he is best remembered for his prose satire, ‘Gulliver’s Travel.’
The author of the classic Gulliver’s Travels (1726), Jonathan Swift was a major figure of English literature. Also a satirist, cleric and political pamphleteer, Swift was born in Dublin, Ireland on November 30, 1667, seven months after the death of his father. Deprived of a bread earner and father, the family became very poor and had to rely on the aid of relatives to survive. Jonathan did not lead a healthy childhood, suffering from Meniere’s disease which causes dizziness, vertigo, nausea, and hearing loss affecting the inner ear. Early in age, Jonathan was sent to live with his uncle, Godwin Swift who supported him and gave him the best education possible.
Swift attended the Kilkenny Grammar School from 1674 to 1682 and later enrolled in the Trinity College in Dublin where he earned a B.A. degree. Although Swift wanted to continue studying for a M.A. degree, he was unable to do so due to political unrest during the Glorious Revolution of 1688. Upon moving to Leicester, England, Swift took up a job working as a secretary to Sir William Temple, a retired diplomat. Living at his home in Moore Park, Surrey, Swift was introduced to a number of politically influential people. Also at Moore Park, Swift, then 22 years of age met Stella, daughter of another employee at Moore Park who was only 6 years old. They formed an affectionate friendly relationship and Swift became her tutor and mentor. Sir William Temple helped Swift gain admission into Oxford University using his influential connections. In 1692, Swift graduated with a M.A. degree.
After returning from Ireland where he served as an Anglican priest for a year, Swift was requested by Temple to assist him in writing his memoirs, managing and publishing his work after his death. Swift started work on his own writing during this time as well and wrote The Battle of the Books (1704).
In 1700, Swift was appointed Chaplin to Lord Berkeley and in 1701 Trinity College Dublin made him a Doctor of Divinity. In 1704, Swift published his humorous take on religion, A Tale of the Tub. Swift became an active figure of the Dublin society and politics becoming a blunt critic in efforts of improving Ireland. After joining the Tories in 1710, Swift wrote many noted political pamphlets including The Conduct of the Allies (1711), The Public Spirit of the Whigs (1714), Meditation on a Broomstick (1703) and A Modest Proposal.
In 1713, Swift formed the literary club, Scriblerus along with Alexander Pope and others. He also became the dean of St. Patrick’s in Dublin. Swift continued writing, often under a pseudonym, an example being Draiper Letters (1724) under the name M.B. Draiper. Swift also published his masterpiece, Gulliver’s Travels under the pen name Lemuel Gulliver in 1726. An immediate best-seller, the book has inspired many theater and film adaptations. The novel represents the culmination of Swift’s years spent in politics with Whigs and Tories and also deals with socio-political issues hidden between the lines.
Swift drowned in grief when his beloved Stella died in 1728. Swift’s health had already started to decline due to Alzhimer’s. Jonathan Swift passed away on October 19, 1745. He is buried beside Stella in St. Patrick’s Cathedral in Dublin.