Биография Рэя Брэдбери на английском языке. Biography of Ray Bradbury
Ray Douglas Bradbury, a prominent American science fiction writer, was born in Illinois in 1920, but mostly lived in Los Angeles, California. There he graduated from high school, where he put out a school magazine entitled «Future Fantasies». His first story was published in 1941. Since then he has got many national awards and won world-wide recognition. Among his works we find «Dark Carnival» (1947), «The Martian Chronicles» (1950), «Fahrenheit 451°» (1953) and a lot of others. Most of his publications are volumes of collected short stories. Ray Bradbury has also excelled himself as the author of TV and radio plays.
Bradbury’s works belong to science fiction, that is fiction in which scientific discoveries and developments form an element of the plot or the background. Besides, very often works of science fiction are based on future possibilities. In science fiction the impossible is presented as possible. A science fiction writer may carry his characters, and consequently the reader, into remote future and prehistoric past or to unknown worlds.
The beginning of science fiction is associated with the names of Joule Verne in France, Herbert Wells in Britain, Edgar Poe in the United States. The first decades were marked by the increase of science fiction production. Gradually it formed a branch of fiction of its own. Its final establishment as a literary genre was completed in the middle of the century after World War II, thanks to scientific discoveries of the time.
Themes of Ray Bradbury’s writing are extremely various, they comprise earthly affairs and space travelling. His literary credo is «to make the commonplace miraculous, to make the miraculous commonplace», for «there is a bit of the known in the unknown». This approach enables Bradbury to remain a realistic writer, no matter how fantastic the plots or backgrounds of his stories may be. He is not so much interested in technology and scientific developments as in man’s psychology. His dreams of the future are actually warnings; his books are noted for their psychological approach to his characters.
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Ray Bradbury is an American author known for his highly imaginative short stories and novels that blend a poetic style, nostalgia for childhood, social criticism, and an awareness of the hazards of runaway technology. Among his best known works are Fahrenheit 451, Dandelion Wine, and The Martian Chronicles.
Fahrenheit 451 (1953) is regarded as Ray Bradbury’s greatest work. The novel is about a future society where books are forbidden, and it has been acclaimed for its anti-censorship themes and its defense of literature against the encroachment of electronic media.
Ray Bradbury’s final novel was Farewell Summer (2006), a sequel to one of his most well-known works, the autobiographical novel Dandelion Wine (1957).
In 2007 the Pulitzer Prize Board awarded Ray Bradbury a Special Citation for his distinguished career.
Ray Bradbury, in full Ray Douglas Bradbury, (born August 22, 1920, Waukegan, Illinois, U.S.—died June 5, 2012, Los Angeles, California), American author best known for his highly imaginative short stories and novels that blend a poetic style, nostalgia for childhood, social criticism, and an awareness of the hazards of runaway technology.
As a child, Bradbury loved horror films such as The Phantom of the Opera (1925); the books of L. Frank Baum and Edgar Rice Burroughs, and the first science fiction magazine, Amazing Stories. Bradbury often told of an encounter with a carnival magician, Mr. Electrico, in 1932 as a notable influence. Wreathed in static electricity, Mr. Electrico touched the young Bradbury on the nose and said, “Live forever!” The next day, Bradbury returned to the carnival to ask Mr. Electrico’s advice on a magic trick. After Mr. Electrico introduced him to the other performers in the carnival, he told Bradbury that he was a reincarnation of his best friend who died in World War I. Bradbury later wrote, “a few days later I began to write, full-time. I have written every single day of my life since that day.”
First short stories
Bradbury’s family moved to Los Angeles in 1934. In 1937 Bradbury joined the Los Angeles Science Fiction League, where he received encouragement from young writers such as Henry Kuttner, Edmond Hamilton, Robert Heinlein, and Leigh Brackett, who met weekly with him. Bradbury published his first short story, “Hollerbochen’s Dilemma” (1938), in the league’s “fanzine,” Imagination! He published his own fanzine, Futuria Fantasia, in 1939. That same year Bradbury traveled to the first World Science Fiction convention, in New York City, where he met many of the genre’s editors. He made his first sale to a professional science fiction magazine in 1941, when his short story “Pendulum” (written with Henry Hasse) was published in Super Science Stories. Many of Bradbury’s earliest stories, with their elements of fantasy and horror, were published in Weird Tales. Most of these stories were collected in his first book of short stories, Dark Carnival (1947). Bradbury’s style, with its rich use of metaphors and similes, stood out from the more utilitarian work that dominated pulp magazine writing.
In the mid-1940s Bradbury’s stories started to appear in major magazines such as The American Mercury, Harper’s, and McCall’s, and he was unusual in publishing both in pulp magazines such as Planet Stories and Thrilling Wonder Stories and “slicks” (so-called because of their high-quality paper) such as The New Yorker and Collier’s without leaving behind the genres he loved. The Martian Chronicles (1950), a series of short stories, depicts Earth’s colonization of Mars, which leads to the extinction of an idyllic Martian civilization. However, in the face of an oncoming nuclear war, many of the settlers return to Earth, and after Earth’s destruction, a few surviving humans return to Mars to become the new Martians. The short-story collection The Illustrated Man (1951) included one of his most famous stories, “The Veldt,” in which a mother and father are concerned about the effect their house’s simulation of lions on the African veldt is having on their children.
Fahrenheit 451, Dandelion Wine, and scripts
Bradbury’s next novel, Fahrenheit 451 (1953), is regarded as his greatest work. In a future society where books are forbidden, Guy Montag, a “fireman” whose job is the burning of books, takes a book and is seduced by reading. Fahrenheit 451 has been acclaimed for its anti-censorship themes and its defense of literature against the encroachment of electronic media. An acclaimed film adaptation was released in 1966.
The collection The Golden Apples of the Sun (1953) contained “The Fog Horn” (loosely adapted for film as The Beast from 20,000 Fathoms ), about two lighthouse keepers’ terrifying encounter with a sea monster; the title story, about a rocket’s dangerous journey to scoop up a piece of the Sun; and “A Sound of Thunder,” about a safari back to the Mesozoic to hunt a Tyrannosaurus. In 1954 Bradbury spent six months in Ireland with director John Huston working on the screenplay for the film Moby Dick (1956), an experience Bradbury later fictionalized in his novel Green Shadows, White Whale (1992). After the release of Moby Dick, Bradbury was in demand as a screenwriter in Hollywood and wrote scripts for Playhouse 90, Alfred Hitchcock Presents, and The Twilight Zone.
One of Bradbury’s most personal works, Dandelion Wine (1957), is an autobiographical novel about a magical but too brief summer of a 12-year-old boy in Green Town, Illinois (a fictionalized version of his childhood home of Waukegan). His next collection, A Medicine for Melancholy (1959), contained “All Summer in a Day,” a poignant story of childhood cruelty on Venus, where the Sun comes out only every seven years. The Midwest of his childhood was once again the setting of Something Wicked This Way Comes (1962), in which a carnival comes to town run by the mysterious and evil Mr. Dark. The next year, he published his first collection of short plays, The Anthem Sprinters and Other Antics.
Later work and awards
In the 1970s Bradbury no longer wrote short fiction at his previous pace, turning his energy to poetry and drama. Earlier in his career he had sold several mystery short stories, and he returned to the genre with Death Is a Lonely Business (1985), an homage to the detective stories of writers such as Raymond Chandler and Dashiell Hammett mixed with an autobiographical setting of 1949 Venice, California, where Bradbury lived at the time. Two sequels, A Graveyard for Lunatics (1990) and Let’s All Kill Constance (2002), mined his experiences in 1950s and ’60s Hollywood. His final novel, Farewell Summer (2006), was a sequel to Dandelion Wine. He adapted 59 of his short stories for the television series The Ray Bradbury Theatre (1985–92).
Bradbury was often considered a science fiction author, but he said that his only science fiction book was Fahrenheit 451. Strictly speaking, much of his work was fantasy, horror, or mysteries. He said, “I use a scientific idea as a platform to leap into the air and never come back.” He received many honours for his work including an Emmy for his animated adaptation of The Halloween Tree (1994) and the National Medal of Arts (2004). In 2007 the Pulitzer Prize Board awarded Bradbury a Special Citation for his distinguished career.
Who Was Ray Bradbury?
Ray Bradbury was an American fantasy and horror author who rejected being categorized as a science fiction author, claiming that his work was based on the fantastical and unreal. His best known novel is Fahrenheit 451, a dystopian study of future American society in which critical thought is outlawed. He is also remembered for several other popular works, including The Martian Chronicles and Something Wicked This Way Comes. Bradbury won the Pulitzer in 2007, and is one of the most celebrated authors of the 21st century.
Author Ray Douglas Bradbury was born on August 22, 1920, in Waukegan, Illinois, to Leonard Spaulding Bradbury, a lineman for power and telephone utilities, and Ester Moberg Bradbury, a Swedish immigrant. Bradbury enjoyed a relatively idyllic childhood in Waukegan, which he later incorporated into several semi-autobiographical novels and short stories. As a child, he was a huge fan of magicians, and a voracious reader of adventure and fantasy fiction — especially L. Frank Baum, Jules Verne and Edgar Rice Burroughs.
Bradbury decided to become a writer at about age 12 or 13. He later said that he made the decision in hopes of emulating his heroes, and to «live forever» through his fiction.
Bradbury’s family moved to Los Angeles, California in 1934. As a teenager, he participated in his school’s drama club and occasionally befriended Hollywood celebrities. His first official pay as a writer came for contributing a joke to George Burns’ Burns & Allen Show. After graduation from high school in 1938, Bradbury couldn’t afford to go to college, so he went to the local library instead. «Libraries raised me,» he later said. «I believe in libraries because most students don’t have any money. When I graduated from high school, it was during the Depression, and we had no money. I couldn’t go to college, so I went to the library three days a week for 10 years.»
Books and Short Stories
To support himself while he wrote, Bradbury sold newspapers. He published his first short story in a fan magazine in 1938, the same year he graduated from high school. The next year, he published four issues of his own fan magazine, Futuria Fantasia. Nearly every piece in the magazine was written by Bradbury himself; he used a variety of pseudonyms to try to hide the fact that the magazine was a virtual one-man show. «I was still years away from writing my first good short story,» he later said, «but I could see my future. I knew where I wanted to go.»
Bradbury sold his first professional piece, the story «Pendulum,» in November 1941, just a month before the United States entered World War II, following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Ruled ineligible for military service by his local draft board because of his vision problems, Bradbury became a full-time writer by early 1943. His first collection of short stories, Dark Carnival, was published in 1947.
That same year, he married Marguerite «Maggie» McClure, whom he met while she was working as a clerk at a bookstore. McClure was the breadwinner in the early days of their marriage, supporting Bradbury as he worked on his writing for little to no pay. The couple had four daughters, Susan (1949), Ramona (1951), Bettina (1955) and Alexandra (1958).
In 1950, Bradbury published his first major work, The Martian Chronicles, which detailed the conflict between humans colonizing the red planet and the native Martians they encountered there. While taken by many to be a work of science fiction, Bradbury himself considered it to be fantasy. «I don’t write science fiction,» he said. «Science fiction is a depiction of the real. Fantasy is a depiction of the unreal. So Martian Chronicles is not science fiction, it’s fantasy. It couldn’t happen, you see?» Television and comic book adaptations of Bradbury’s short stories began to appear in 1951, introducing him to a wider audience.