биография Лермонтова По Английскому Языку

Тема Биография Лермонтова на английском языке: диалоги, сочинение

Михаил Юрьевич Лермонтов – один из самых известных русских поэтов, произведения которого входят в классику русской литературы.

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Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov is one of the most famous Russian poets, whose works are included in the classics of Russian literature.

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Родился он в Москве 15 октября 1814 года.

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He was born in Moscow on October 15, 1814.

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Его родителями были дворянин Юрий Лермонтов и Мария Арсеньева, принадлежавшая к богатому и знатному роду Столыпиных.

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His parents were a nobleman, Yuri Lermontov, and Maria Arsenyeva, who belonged to the rich and noble family of the Stolypin.

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Через два года после рождения Михаила его мать умерла, и бабушка по матери взяла мальчика к себе на воспитание.

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Two years after the birth of Michael, his mother died, and his maternal grandmother took the boy into her care.

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В 12 лет Лермонтов поступил в университетский благородный пансион.

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At age 12, Lermontov entered the university noble boarding house.

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Писать стихи Лермонтов начал в пансионе в 1828 году.

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Lermontov began to write poems in a boarding house in 1828.

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В сентябре 1830 года молодой человек поступил в Московский университет.

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In September 1830, a young man entered Moscow University.

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В 1834 году окончил Санкт-Петербургскую гвардейскую школу.

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In 1834 he graduated from the St. Petersburg Guards School.

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Сочинение о Лермонтове на английском языке

Самыми известными произведениями Лермонтова являются роман «Герой нашего времени», поэмы «Демон», «Мцыри», «Песня про купца Калашникова», стихи «Парус», «Смерть поэта» и многие другие.

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В 1837 году за стихотворение «Смерть поэта» Лермонтов был арестован и отправлен в ссылку на Кавказ. Благодаря бабушке в 1838 году Лермонтов снова вернулся в петербургский свет.
За дуэль с сыном французского посла поэт снова отправлен в ссылку на Кавказ в 1840 году, где участвует в военных действиях. Возвращаясь со второй ссылки, Лермонтов встретил старого товарища. У них произошла ссора, в результате которой Мартынов вызвал поэта на дуэль.

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Михаил Юрьевич Лермонтов был убит на дуэли, которая произошла в Пятигорске.

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Трагическая смерть Лермонтова произошла 15 июля 1841 года. Ему было всего 26 лет.

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Перевод:

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The most famous works of Lermontov are the novel “The Hero of Our Time”, the poem “The Demon”, “Mtsyri”, “The Song of the Merchant Kalashnikov”, the poems “The Sail”, “The Poet’s Death” and many others.

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In 1837, for the poem “Death of a Poet”, Lermontov was arrested and sent into exile to the Caucasus. Thanks to his grandmother in 1838, Lermontov returned to the light of St. Petersburg again.

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For a duel with the son of the French ambassador, the poet was again sent to exile in the Caucasus in 1840, where he participated in hostilities. Returning from the second link, Lermontov met an old comrade. They had a quarrel, which resulted in Martynov summoning the poet to a duel.

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Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov was killed in a duel that occurred in Pyatigorsk.

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The tragic death of Lermontov occurred July 15, 1841. He was only 26 years old.

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Диалог о Михаиле Лермонтове

– Кто такой Лермонтов?

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– Это великий писатель! Ты должен знать его стихи. Ты читал «Мцыри»?

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– О, да. Это хорошо известная романтическая поэма, и она мне очень понравилась.

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– Это поэма Лермонтова, написанная в 1839 году.

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– Who is Lermontov?

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– This is a great writer! You should know his poems. Have you read “Mtsyri”?

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– Oh yeah. This is a well-known romantic poem, and I really liked it.

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– This is a poem by Lermontov, written in 1839.

Биография Лермонтова Михаила на английском языке

Здесь вы можете прочитать биографию Лермонтова Михаила на английском языке.

Mikhail Lermontov (15. 10 [O.S. 3.10] 1814 – 27.07 [O.S. 15.07] 1841) — Russian writer and poet.

Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov was born on 15 October 1814 in Moscow. He spent his childhood in the village of Tarkhany which was located in Penza Oblast. As the saying goes in the 17th century one of the Scottish Earls of Learmont settled in Russia and Mikhail was his descendant. Scientists also made a supposition that famous Scottish poet Thomas Learmonth was his relative. According to established fact Mikhail Lermontov was a descendant of Yuri (George) Learmont who was a Scottish officer. In the 17th century he moved to Russia.

Mikhail’s father, Yuri, was a serviceman. His mother Maria Arsenyeva died when Mikhail was a child. Lermontov’s grandmother, Yelizaveta Alekseyevna, brought him up after Maria’s death. At the age of ten Mikhail had problems with health and they moved to the Caucasus. The fertile climate of this region was good for Mikhail. From that time he loved the Caucasus.

Lermontov spent his childhood in the intellectual atmosphere and he became interested in English literature. He studied Byron’s poetry. When Mikhail was a child he was taught by a Frenchman named Gendrot. But Yelizaveta Alekseyevna decided that additional education was necessary for her grandson and took him to Moscow where the young poet entered the gymnasium. While there Lermontov developed a passion for the poetry of Zhukovsky and Pushkin. After a while he met Katerina Khvostovaya whom he loved. Lermontov inscribed some poems to her. At the same time the young poet developed a talent for sarcastic humor. Moreover he could draw caricatures and pin somebody down with an epigram or nickname.

In 1830 after studying at gymnasium Mikhail entered Moscow University. That year his father died and this event made a lasting impression on him. Lermontov’s sorrow was apparent in his poems «Forgive me, Will we Meet Again?» and «The Terrible Fate of Father and Son». Lermontov was not a student for a long time. In 1832 because of misunderstanding with professor Malov he left the university.

After studying for two years at university Lermontov decided to change his career choice. Between 1830 and 1834 Lermontov attended the cadet school. In those years he started writing poetry. He became interested in Russian history and medieval epics and it was apparent in some his poems including the Song of the Merchant Kalashnikov and Borodino.

In 1837 Pushkin died. His death produced a strong impression on Lermontov. Consequently he wrote a poem “Death of the Poet” which displeased the Tsar. Lermontov was immediately exiled to the Caucasus. But this region was native for him because he spent there his childhood.

In 1838 and 1839 Lermontov was in Saint Petersburg. Mikhail loved Barbara Lopukhina and he described his love in the novel Princess Ligovskaya which he didn’t complete. In 1840 the son of French ambassador challenged Lermontov to a duel. As a result Mikhail returned to the army. He joined hand-to-hand combat at the Battle of the Valerik River. This event was a basis for his poem Valerik. By 1839 Lermontov wrote one of his famous novels, A Hero of Our Time. Mikhail Lermontov became a great poet of Russian literature. He is also called “the poet of the Caucasus”. Lermontov was a founder of the Russian psychological novel.

In July 1841 because of Lermontov’s joke Nikolai Martynov challenged him to a duel. Martynov killed Lermontov with his first shot. Mikhail Lermontov was interred at Tarkhany.

Mikhail Lermontov

Mikhail Lermontov: biography

Comparing the number of books of Mikhail Lermontov with the number of lived years, it becomes clear that he was a genius. At 10 he composed plays for the home theater, read French, German and English classics in the original, painted beautifully. He wrote the first edition of the poem «Demon» at 15, the drama «Masquerade» at 20, the novel «Hero of Our Time» at 24. And at 26 years Lermontov died.

Childhood and youth

Mikhail Lermontov was born on October 15, 1814 in Moscow. The grandmother of the poet Elizaveta Arsenyeva is a noblewoman from the Stolypin noble family. The minister Peter Stolypin is the poet’s second cousin.

The poet Mikhail Lermontov

Powerful and rich Elizabeth Arsenyeva did not want her single daughter to marry Yuri Lermontov, a handsome military man of impoverished family. His doubtful origin from the Scotsman George Lermont did not inspire her confidence. Later, the British company Oxford Ancestors denied the relationship of the poet with Lermonts by DNA analysis, confirming Arsenyeva’s doubts.

As the woman predicted, the personal life of her daughter Masha, who married Yuri Lermontov at the age of 16, was unhappy. The husband betrayed the young wife almost immediately after the wedding. He began relations with a German nanny of his son Misha, liked the courtyard girls. And when his wife accused her husband of adultery, she was beaten. 21-year-old Maria Arsenyeva-Lermontova died from consumption, leaving half-orphaned 2-year-old Misha.

Parents of Mikhail Lermontov

Elizaveta Alekseevna, who at the time of her daughter’s death was 44 years old, took her grandson from her son-in-law, having issued Lermontov a bill for 25 thousand rubles. Yuri left the family estate of the Stolypins, and Misha was brought up by his grandmother. The woman loved her grandson and paid a lot of money for his education and health. Mikhail Lermontov grew up a sick boy, and his grandmother hired for her grandson a French doctor Anselm Levy.

Elizaveta Arsenyeva, the grandmother of Mikhail Lermontov

The mother-in-law occasionally allowed the father to meet his son, but both suffered after such meetings.

«I became their prey,» Mikhail Lermontov later complained.

Childhood and youth of the future classicist were spent in Tarkhany estate in Penza province. Elizaveta Alekseevna hired teachers for his education. The former officer of the Napoleon army, a Frenchman Capet, taught the boy French. After the death of the teacher, his place was taken by the emigrant Shandro, whom Mikhail Lermontov later described in the poem «Sashka», calling him the Marquis de Tess and the «Parisian Adonis». Shandro was replaced by the Englishman Windson, who tought the young man English literature. Lermontov loved Byron’s books thanks to his British teacher.

The Tarkhany estate in Penza province

Mikhail Lermontov grew up in the family estate watching the village life, listening to the peasants’ folk songs and legends about Stepan Razin and Emelian Pugachev.

A deep trace in the life and creative biography was left by the trip with his grandmother to the Caucasus. In Goryachevodsk a 10-year-old boy fell in love for the first time and 2 years later he devoted the poem «To Genius» to his first girlfriend.

Poems

In September 1828, Mikhail Lermontov was enrolled in the fourth class of a boarding school in the capital. In December, the boy went to the fifth grade, and got the picture and the book for diligence. This year was significant for Lermontov because it was the beginning of his creative biography.

Mikhail Lermontov in childhood

At boarding school, the teenager created hand-written journals. In one of them, «Morning Dawn», the young poet became the main employee and placed here his first poem «Indian». But two years after the transformation of the boarding school into a gymnasium, Misha left the school.

16-year-old Mikhail Lermontov spent summer in the village, in the Stolypnykh Serednikovo estate. Nearby, his relatives Vereshchagins lived. Lermontov was friends with Alexandra Vereshchagina. The girl introduced Michael to her friend, «black-eyed beauty» Catherine Sushkova with whom the young man fell in love. But she didn’t answer Lermontov’s feelings. He suffered very much. Katya laughed at the clumsy and unimpressive boy. Later, Sushkova realized that she made a fatal mistake, making fun of the unhappy young man.

Moscow University

In autumn of 1830, Mikhail Lermontov entered the Moscow University, choosing a moral and political faculty. Two years he studied with Vissarion Belinsky, Alexander Herzen and Nikolai Ogarev. In his student years, Lermontov wrote his drama «Strange Man», in which he criticized serfdom. Mikhail showed a daring temper and discourtesy. Because of his character teacher didn’t like him and Mikhail didn’t pass exams.

Lermontov refused to study one more year and left the university, having moved with his grandmother to St. Petersburg. The attempt to enter the second course was not successful: Mikhail was offered to start from the beginning. Following the advice of friends and grandmother, the young man entered the school of guard ensigns and cavalry cadets, where he studied for two years, calling them «terrible» because of military drill.

Mikhail Lermontov is writing poems

In St. Petersburg, clumsy and gloomy Mikhail Lermontov changed: the young man became the heart of the company; he was dating beautiful women. Sharp mind, erudition, sarcasm was noted by friends and high society ladies.

In 1835, the poet’s works first appeared in print. Lermontov’s friends, without his knowledge, published the novel «Hadji Abrek».

From the second half of 30s Mikhail Lermontov’s poems were published. Critics and readers warmly received the poem «Song of Tsar Ivan Vasilyevich . » In the poems «Dagger» («My Iron Friend»), «Poet» and «Duma» Lermontov proclaimed the ideals of civic poetry. The national topic and the Russian character were described in the poems «Borodino» and «Homeland».

A vivid example of romanticism is the poem «Parus», first published in “Otechestvennye zapiski”. Reading the lines, the spiritual impulses of the 18-year-old poet become clear.

In St. Petersburg, Mikhail Lermontov was watching the aristocracy. It was the basis of the drama «Masquerade,» which the poet repeatedly rewrote, but never broke the wall of censorship.

Mikhail Lermontov

A turning point of Lermontov’s early biography to adult art happened in 1837, after the publication of an angry response to the death of Alexander Pushkin. The poem «The Death of a Poet», criticizing the murderer and nobility, named by Lermontov the culprit of the tragedy, was read by the whole Russia. Pushkin’s friends and admirers of his talent met the poem warmly, and the enemies, including secular ladies who supported handsome Dantes, were angry.

After negative reaction of people, Mikhail Lermontov added sharpness. The first poem ended with a line: «And on his lips is the seal.» The continuation to «arrogant descendants»: people saw a call to the revolution.

Exiles

After the poem appeared, there was a trial and then arrest. The process was observed by Emperor Nicholas I. Lermontov’s grandmother and friends of Pushkin, including Vasyl Andreyevich Zhukovsky, tried to help Mikhail Lermontov. The man was exiled to the Caucasus as a lieutenant in the dragoon regiment.

The first exile lasted six months, but Lermontov strongly changed. The picturesque nature of the Caucasus, the life of the mountain men, local folklore were reflected in his works of «Caucasian» period. But the youthful excitement of the poet melted, giving way to «black melancholy.»

Mikhail Lermontov in the Caucasus

After returning to St. Petersburg, Mikhail Lermontov was in the center of attention: some loved him and others hate him. The Caucasus inspired the poet to write poems that were started in Moscow: “Demon” and “Mtsyri” appeared.

After the exile Mikhail Lermontov brought to St. Petersburg his new works, which were printed in every issue of the “Otechestvennye zapiski” journal. Mikhail Yuryevich spent time with Pushkin’s close friends and was at the peak of popularity. He was still daring and sarcastic. The quarrel with the son of the French ambassador Ernest de Barant in February 1840 ended with a duel. Lermontov and de Barant decided to meet at the Black River, not far from the place of Pushkin’s duel with Dantes. Ernest de Barant missed, and Mikhail Lermontov shot to the other side.

The authorities recognized the duel; the poet was arrested and was sent to the military court. The emperor ordered to send a duelist to the Caucasus for the second time, but now to the army regiment, who fought on the front line. Lermontov showed bravery, but because of Nicholas I, he did not receive any awards.

One of the last poems of the poet — «Alone for the road» — appeared at the end of May 1841. Critics saw in it the «lyrical outcome of the searches», to which Mikhail Lermontov addressed at the end of life. Few weeks before the murder, the poet wrote a poem «Cliff», printed two years after his death.

Novels

In St. Petersburg Mikhail Lermontov created the novel «Vadim», in which he described the events of the Pugachev rebellion.

Nikolai Burlyaev in the role of Mikhail Lermontov

But the apotheosis of Lermontov’s realism is the novel «The Hero of Our Time», written in 1840, shortly before his death. The image of Pechorin is shown on a contrasting background of the life of Russian society. The contradiction between deep character of Pechorin and the meaningless of actions is autobiographical. Innovation of the novel is in deep psychology and the inner world of heroes. None of the Russia writers did this before.

Personal life

Mikhail Lermontov wrote:

«I loved three times — three times hopelessly.»

The poet, according to the description of a contemporary young lady, wasn’t beautiful. He was small, stumpy, his eyes were dark, his smile was unpleasant, he was a nervous young man, like a spoiled and angry child.

Mikhail Lermontov and Ekaterina Sushkova

Lermontov’s three main loves got married: Ekaterina Sushkova with whom Michail fell in love at the age of 16, Natalia Ivanova, to whom he dedicated the “Ivanovski Cycle”, Varvara Lopukhina, whom the poet loved until the end of his life.

Mikhail Lermontov and Natalia Ivanova

Mikhail Lermontov cruelly avenged Sushkova 5 years later. Learning that the girl was going to get married, he destroyed the wedding, playing passion and Catherine fell in love with him. The bride, compromised in the eyes of the world, suffered for a long time. The history of tragic relations resembles the love line of the novel «The Hero of Our Time».

Mikhail Lermontov and Varvara Lopukhina

The news about the marriage of Varenka Lopukhina upset the poet. When Varvara got married, Lermontov never called her by her husband’s surname — Bakhmeteva: his beloved remained Lopukhina for him.

Death

Winter of 1840-41 was the last for Lermontov. He came on vacation to St. Petersburg, dreaming of retirement and literary work. His grandmother, who dreamed of a military career for her grandson and did not like his hobby, forced Mikhail not to resign. To the Caucasus, Lermontov returned with an uneasy heart.

Mikhail Lermontov in 1840

In Pyatigorsk there was a fatal quarrel between Mikhail Lermontov and the retired major Nikolai Martynov, whom he met in Moscow and even visited his parents’ house. Later Martynov said that in Pyatigorsk Lermontov did not miss a single chance to quarrel with him.

The duel took place on July 27, 1841. The opponents agreed to shoot «till the end.» Mikhail Lermontov shot up, and Martynov — straight, into the enemy’s chest, killing him. The storm and heavy rain that broke out prevented the arrival of the doctor, and the dead poet was lying on the ground for a long time.

Mikhail Lermontov

Lermontov was buried on July 29, 1841 in the old cemetery in Pyatigorsk. But in 250 days the grandmother of Mikhail Yuryevich asked the permission of the emperor to transport the body to Tarkhany.

Mikhail Lermontov on his deathbed

In April 1842, the body in a coffin was buried in the family chapel-tomb, next to his grandfather and mother.

Memory

Lermontov’s books were reprinted dozens of times. The last one was in 2014: a collection of works in 4 books was published by the Publishing House of the Pushkin House in the number of 300 copies.

Streets, public gardens, libraries in Russia and the post-Soviet republics have the name of Mikhail Yuryevich. In Odessa, the city’s library No. 16 and the clinical sanatorium are named after the poet.

Monument of Mikhail Lermontov in Stavropol

The small planet number 2222, opened in March 1981, is named «Lermontov».

Monument to Mikhail Yurievich Lermontov stands in Grozny on Mohammed Ali Avenue, next to the Lermontov Drama Theater. On the pedestal there are poet’s words:

«As a sweet song of my Motherland, I love the Caucasus!»


источники:

http://www.homeenglish.ru/ArticlesLermontov.htm

http://en.24smi.org/celebrity/38319-mikhail-lermontov.html